Larabee (1948) has identified eight characteristics of the Loyalists that made them essentially conservative. Psychologically they were older, better established, and resisted innovation. They thought resistance to the Crown–the legitimate government–was morally wrong. They were alienated when the Patriots resorted to violence, such as burning houses and tarring and feathering. They wanted to take a middle-of-the road position and were angry when forced by the Patriots to declare their opposition. They had a long-standing sentimental attachment to Britain (often with business and family links). They were procrastinators who realized that independence was bound to come some day, but wanted to postpone the moment. They were cautious and afraid of anarchy or tyranny that might come from mob rule. Finally they were pessimists who lacked the confidence in the future displayed by the Patriots.